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These photos of this submarine were taken by Dan Collier from his last visit to Guam. Those procurement officers were aware of the airplane’s main flaw but chose to accept it, dooming many crews. Whether his engineering team found it aesthetically pleasing is open to question. 703-572-4118, Overall: 19ft 8 1/4in. Grilled Hamburger, seasoned, hand-packed & grilled Make it a Classic with Bacon or Cheese +$1.50 – Choice of American, Cheddar, Swiss, Provolone, Blue, or Spicy Queso The Blackout $14 A Blackened Burger, topped with Blue Cheese, Grilled Onion and Bacon The Mustang $13 G3Ms attacked in large vee formations of 27 aircraft stacked in nine mini-vees of three aircraft each, a formation-flying nightmare. Frederick Hill Collection/U.S. Mitsubishi produced a total of 2,414 G4M airplanes but few remained when the war ended on August 15, 1945. FS2004 FSX Mitsubishi G4M1 Betty bomber Codenamed Betty by the Allies, the Mitsubishi G4M long-range medium bomber remained in service with the Japanese navy from the first to the last day of the war. Had they tried putting a matching mat on the exterior top of the wing tanks as well, the airplane probably would never have gotten off the ground. One specially detailed Betty crew was even assigned to seize a Superfortress and fly it back to Japan. This aircraft, coded '302,' was the last flyable bomber left at Rabaul by the end of WWII. In November 2015, billionaire Paul Allen bought the wreck for his Flying Heritage and Combat Armor Museum in Seattle. Front-line combat units operated many variants and subvariants with different engines and armament packages. Escorted by four RNZAF Vought F4U-1 Corsair fighters, it was flown to Jacquinot Bay on October 14,1945 by … He incorporated 7.7 mm (.30 cal.) They devastated Clark Field, Philippine Islands, on December 8, 1941, and participated in sinking the British battleships HMS "Prince of Wales" and HMS "Repulse" on December 10. Like most of Imperial Japan's aircraft in the early stages of World War 2, the Mitsubishi G4M (codenamed "Betty" by the Allies) was a potent performer in operation as a twin-engined, land-based naval medium-class bomber. We teamed up in 2010 to bring our 30+ combined years of experience and artistry to the Savannah restaurant scene with Butterhead Greens Café. As a public health precaution, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center and the Museum in DC are temporarily closed. It was brought to the United States aboard a U. S. Navy aircraft carrier along with 145 other Japanese aircraft selected for test and evaluation. For the remainder of the war, the BETTY assembly line continued to run. This extremely rare Bell YP-59A Airacomet is under restoration to flying condition. (U.S. Navy). They called the design the “snail,” sometimes translated as “slug.”. The aircraft was operated by the 105th Naval Base Air Unit. The IJNAS requirements were a top speed of 247 mph, a maximum range of almost 3,000 statute miles and a loaded range of 2,300 miles. Nor was it a factor during the early days of WWII, when Bettys ranged virtually unopposed against the Philippines, Australia and, in their greatest single victory, against the Royal Navy. During 1944, this Betty was photographed by B-25 Mitchell from the 3rd Bomb Group during a low level strike against the airfield. The Rikko assignment went straight to Mitsu­bishi, which had already paid its bomber-building dues with the G2M and G3M. As a result of these modifications, the fuselage was shortened and the center-of-gravity shifted forward. Navy crews suffered 4,300 fatalities and 5,400 casualties, or seven percent of all crew casualties incurred during the entire Pacific war. A Betty bomber is escorted by BETTY’S DREAM of the 499th Bomb Squadron on August 21, 1945 after the surrender delegation met with Allied officials at Manila. Since restoration, she has flown as "Betty's Dream". The August 19, 1945, mission is often characterized as having “carried Japan’s surrender delegation,” but the officers aboard had no such function; the surrender was actually ratified on September 2. The American system of nicknaming World War II Japanese  aircraft gave female names to bombers, male names to fighters. Washington, DC 20560 One Betty on a bomb run against Lexington had an engine shot entirely off its mounts, by Lieutenant Butch O’Hare of ORD fame, and then did its best to crash into the carrier. Air Force Academy via Jack Fellows, Mitsubishi’s G4M bomber went by many names, but perhaps the most appropriate would have been “flaming coffin.”. Almost certainly it will eventually be fully restored and placed on display. Another BETTY variant became mother ship to the Kugisho Ohka kamikaze, or Tokko (special attack) aircraft (see NASM collection). For more information, visit the Smithsonian's, IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. The Betty’s swan song would have involved a fleet of some 60 troop-carrying G4Ms (their roomy fuselages made them particularly appropriate for this) that were to simultaneously land on Guam, Saipan and Tinian. At that time, the requirements were unprecedented for a twin-engine, land-based attack bomber: flying at a top speed of 398 kph (247 mph) and an altitude of 3,000 m (9,845 ft), the new bomber had to fly a distance of 4,722 km (2,933 miles) without a torpedo or equivalent weight in bombs. Before serial production of the Betty began in 1940, Mitsubishi was ordered to first create a G4M heavy fighter variant designated the G6M1. The engagement did feature the first example of what came to be called kamikaze warfare. Restoration of the World War II Japanese Submarine on Guam. The Betty design would work. Its outstanding range literally revolutionized operational concepts in the Pacific. The Nell was the scourge of China, ranging far and wide during the Sino-Japanese war that preceded WWII. (His friend Horikoshi seems to have taken the technique to heart in designing the Zero.) Honjo apparently also decided that an untapered fuselage ending in a large tail-gunner’s station made sense aerodynamically. When carrying an 800-kg (1,768 lb) torpedo or the same weight in bombs, the Navy needed the bomber to fly at least 3,700 km (2,300 mi). After the war, the USAAF was test-flying at least one Betty that had been captured in the Philippines, one of four or five flyable G4Ms that the U.S. liberated. Find out what we’re discovering. Her first flight after restoration was in March of 1999. It was the first time that aircraft alone had sunk fully maneuverable capital ships at sea. Mitsubishi also learned that the heavy cannons compromised the Betty’s handling. This BETTY was flight-tested as Foreign Equipment Test number T2-2205. (U.S. Navy). Its Allied reporting name was “Betty”. The nose art features Betty Grable, the number one pinup girl of the World War II era.The aircraft's name takes after a song made very popular by Doris Day in 1945. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, architect of the Pearl Harbor attack, died on April 18, 1943, along with his entire staff when U. S. Army Air Corps P-38 Lightnings (see NASM collection) intercepted and destroyed the two BETTY bombers that carried them. [ September 21, 2020 ] CAF Dixie Wing to Feature PT-17 Stearman/N2S Kaydet Aircraft Restoration [ September 18, 2020 ] New WWII ... Home Betty’s Biscuit Bomber Betty’s Biscuit Bomber. A visit to the crash site of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's G4M1 Betty 2656 on southern Bougainville, near Kokopo Village. But as Allied fighter strength increased, the BETTY began to reveal its fatal vulnerabilities. (6m x 19.5m, 7000kg, 25m), For more information, visit the Smithsonian's, There are restrictions for re-using this media. One of the Betty’s last combat assignments was to carry torpedo-shaped Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka single-seat kamikaze rocket planes to within striking distance of U.S. fleets. The Japanese had become outstanding night pilots during the Sino-Japanese war, when they flew 500-mile missions in darkness purely by dead reckoning, sometimes serving as navigation lead ships for their own fighter escorts. Get the best deals on betty boop jackets & coats and save up to 70% off at Poshmark now! Used to deliver a varied payload, ranging from single torpedo to multiple bombs. (Aviation History Collection/Alamy). The BETTY was so prone to ignite that the Allies nicknamed it the 'flying lighter.'. We called her Betty. The white-painted airplane carried officials charged with … This maintained the internal fuel capacity but adversely affected the airplane’s aerodynamics. The plane that was developed was the twin-engine Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber. The Type 91 had been designed specifically for the Hawaii attack and Pearl Harbor’s shallow water, though there it was carried by single-engine, carrier-launched Nakajima B5N2 Kates. She is now based at the Dakota Territory Air Museum in Minot, ND. The Japanese thought that was unfair, and Yamamoto’s desire to build a fleet of very-long-range torpedo bombers—no aircraft carriers needed—was in part a way to circumvent the Washington treaty: If we can’t build floating warships, let’s build flying warships. It worked for a while, but increasingly inexperienced G4M crews and the chaos of night attacks rendered even these desperate measures ineffective. As the war dragged on, improved bombers failed to materialize so Mitsubishi fielded different versions of the G4M to fulfill new missions, and to eliminate the various weaknesses in the basic design. The NASM G4M Model 34 BETTY is not complete but it is the best-preserved example of this famous aircraft in the world. In one stroke, it totally removed the Royal Navy from any effective role in the Pacific War. The Japanese called them “wingtip escorts,” assumedly so-named from their position in the main formation, and they were gunned up with extra 20mm cannons in place of light machine guns. The aircraft was probably based at Oppama Air Field near Yokosuka, Japan, but no record of the unit or service history is known. Don’t miss our fast-paced webcasts designed to engage students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in 30 minutes. The first G4M prototype left the factory in September 1939 and made the trek to Kagamigahara Airfield since Mitsubishi's Nagoya plant had no company airstrip. In total, eighteen Betty bombers were shot down and two others crash landed, including this bomber. Betty Bomber. Few would know it by its official designation, the Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber. Sorry, there was a problem. Though the Betty was initially laid out by engineer Joji Hattori, the lead designer was Kiro Honjo, a good friend of Zero fighter designer Jiro Horikoshi. Rather than pull all-nighters, he spent a lot of time in Cambridge playing poker. About half the crew manned the defensive gun positions. Members of the Japanese delegation debark from their aircraft and prepare to board a C-54 for a flight to Manila, where they will receive instructions concerning the surrender and American occupation. It was the first gun ever fired from an airplane, a Wright Model B Flyer, in 1912. The Classic Bomber $10 The All-American Classic, 6 oz. The first Betty/Ohka strike, toward U.S. aircraft carriers off Kyushu in March 1945, consisted of 18 Bettys escorted by 30 Zeros. Their fate is unknown, though the cockpit and nose of one, plus the tailcone, ended up in storage at the National Air and Space Museum. In 1936 Japan renounced the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, which had stipulated that the capital-ship-building ratio between the U.S., Britain and Japan should be 5:5:3. Like its stablemate, Mitsubishi's Zero Fighter (see NASM collection for two examples), the Hamaki soldiered on long after it became obsolete, even dangerous, to fly wherever Allied interceptors prowled. Initial results were impressive, but the Navy shelved the bomber for a time in favor of a variant to be called the G6M1. Sentimental Journey (44-83514) is the nickname of a B-17G Flying Fortress bomber. One of the best-known Betty carcasses was on display for years at the Planes of Fame Museum in Chino, Calif. In the tail, he introduced a 20 mm cannon. Later, the airplane was dismembered with a cutting torch but when and precisely why are not known. The U.S. Army Air Forces would later try the same thing with its YB-40s, which were B-17s carrying 18 or even more .50-caliber guns, flying as formation escorts. The DC-4E design proved to be so bad that the company started over again, producing the successful DC-4 airliner. Few would know it by its official designation, the Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber. This version was called the G4M Model 34. It was propelled by a tiny radial engine fueled by kerosene and compressed air, and had a surprisingly sophisticated automatic roll-control mechanism. Although the G4M now had a more potent sting, Honjo again sacrificed crew protection to the Navy's demands for great range. Only two months later, the Navy issued a specification to Mitsubishi for a NELL replacement. Sans glass, the tail gun compartment is remarkably intact. Crewmen on the destroyer USS Ellet observe the wreckage of a Betty that crashed during an attack off Guadalcanal on August 8, 1942. So the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service laid down the parameters of what would become the Betty by basically saying, “Build a better Nell. In 2011 it was operated by Fighter Hangar 1, now known as the Texas Flying Legends Museum. From the first day of war until after the surrender, BETTY bombers saw service throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Aichi D3A2 Type 99 Carrier Bomber (Allied Code Name: “Val”) Developed in the late 1930s, the D3A was a low-mounted monoplane aircraft with fixed landing gear capable of take-offs and landings from an aircraft carrier. The U. S. Army Air Corps conducted a similar experiment using a modified Boeing B-17 bomber designated the B-40 but this idea too failed to survive operational testing and was soon abandoned. Homeward bound, the Bettys were appropriately snakebit. The NASM G4M Model 34 BETTY is not complete but it is the best-preserved example of this famous aircraft in the world. The Betty Bomber. This photo can also be found in Warpath Across the Pacific. The decision not to incorporate the heavier, safer fuel tanks was necessary to meet the Navy's range requirements. Mortimer J. Adler, American philosopher, educator and writer. It missed, but it has been written that the entire corps of Rikko pilots, aware that they were riding fiery mounts, had agreed to seek out a target to crash into if their airplane was terminally damaged. The Betty’s wet wings were its tanks, with fuel cells neatly defined by the main spar and a secondary spar forward of it, the ends sealed by solid wing ribs. Judging by what Allen has done with other such acquisitions, it is possible that this Betty will someday fly again. Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, English astronomer who confirmed Einstein's theory of relativity. Not a single Betty survives as anything more than a battered, partial hulk—a situation unique among warbirds built in such numbers and active in so much combat. Lieutenant Den Sudo emerges from the cockpit of his Mitsubishi G6M1-L—a “wingtip escort” heavy fighter variant of the G4M1 “Betty” bomber converted to a transport—at Ie Shima on August 19, 1945. None of this mattered during the Sino-Japanese campaign, when Bettys were escorted by the new, long-range A6M2 Zero. When you walk up to the Betty site the first thing you see is the huge tail standing like an enormous monolith at the site. The brainchild of Pearl Harbor planner Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, G4M1s fly in formation off the Japanese coast. Japan's newest and most advanced bomber made the trip, disassembled and stacked on five ox-drawn farm carts, over unpaved roads! It was recovered from New Guinea in 1991 by warbird salvager Bruce Fenstermaker, in a joint venture with the Santa Monica Museum of Flying. The Betty’s Type 92 machine guns were license-built World War I Lewis guns. The fuselage was streamlined but rotund to allow space for a bomb bay within the wing center section and to allow the 7 to 9-man crew to move about. John Von Neumann, Hungarian-born mathematician. Against limited fighter opposition, the lack of armor and self-sealing fuel tanks was no hindrance. Douglas couldn’t have played its hand better if it had tried. Contributing editor Stephan Wilkinson recommends for further reading: Mitsubishi G4M Betty, by Martin Ferkl, and Mitsubishi Type 1 Rikko ‘Betty’ Units of World War 2, by Osamu Tagaya. A fact-finding trip to the Kugisho Ohka kamikaze, or Tokko ( special Attack ) aircraft ( see NASM )! 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